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diagonals: Block Diagonal Extraction or Replacement

Several tools for handling block-matrix diagonals and similar constructs are implemented. Block-diagonal matrices can be extracted or removed using two small functions implemented here. In addition, non-square matrices are supported. Block diagonal matrices occur when two dimensions of a data set are combined along one edge of a matrix. For example, trade-flow data in the 'decompr' and 'gvc' packages have each country-industry combination occur along both edges of the matrix.